Baking is cooking in confined heat in the oven. Examples: Bread, cake, meat. This method when applied to meat is commonly called roasting. Before baking, see that the oven is clean and heated to the desired temperature.
Boiling is cooking by immersion in water at 212° P. Examples: Potatoes, cabbage, macaroni.
Braising is a combination of stewing on the top of the range, and baking in the oven, with or without vegetables. Examples: Tough meats, fowl, whole liver.
Broiling or Grilling is cooking over or under direct heat, as over glowing coals or under a gas flame. Examples: Steak, chops.
Fricasseeing is commonly a combination of stewing and sauteing. Examples: Fowl, forequarter of lamb or veal.
Frying is cooking by immersion in hot deep fat. Examples: Doughnuts, croquettes.
Pan-baking or Pan-broiling is cooking in a lightly greased or un-greased hot frying pan or griddle. Examples: Steak, English muffins, griddle cakes.
Pot Roasting is cooking in an iron kettle or earthen pot in a small amount of water, after meat has been quickly browned in a small amount of fat in the frying pan or kettle. Cook slowly until very tender, with or without vegetables.
Roasting is cooking before an open fire. This method is seldom used in small households, although the baking of meats is commonly called roasting.
Sauteing is cooking in a small amount of fat in a shallow pan on top of range. Examples: Sliced fish, meat, potatoes, eggs.
Simmering is cooking in liquid at 185° F. The bubbles should always be below the surface. Examples: Ham, corned beef, soups.
Steaming. Dry Steaming is cooking by heat or steam, as in double boiler or tin, over or surrounded by boiling water. Examples: Rice, brown bread.
Moist Steaming is cooking by direct contact with steam, as in a steamer or colander, over boiling water, closely covered. Examples: Fowl, puddings, dumplings.
Stewing is cooking slowly in a small amount of water (about 160° F.) until food is very tender. Examples: Beef, lamb, vegetables.
Table Of Weights And Measures
- 1 teaspoon = 60 drops
- 3 teaspoons c= 1 tablespoon
- 16 tablespoons = 1 cup
- 1 cup = 1/2 pint
- 2 pints = 1 quart
- Butter, 2 tablespoons solidly packed = 1 ounce
- Butter, 2 cups solidly packed = 1 pound
- Chocolate, 1 square = 1 ounce
- Coffee, 4 1/2 cups = 1 pound
- Eggs, 9 in shells = 1 pound
- English Walnuts, chopped 5 cups = 1 pound
- Flour, 4 tablespoons = 1 ounce
- Flour, Pastry, 4 cups = 1 pound
- Flour, Bread, 4 cups = 1 pound
- Flour, Entire Wheat, 3 1/2 cups = 1 pound
- Meat, 2 cups finely chopped = 1 pound
- Oats, Rolled, 5 cups = 1 pound
- Rice, 1 1/2 cups = 1 pound
- Sugar, Brown, 2 1/2 cups = 1 pound
- Sugar, Confectioners, 3 1/2 cups = 1 pound
- Sugar, Granulated, 2 cups = 1 pound
- Sugar, Powdered, 2 1/2 cups = 1 pound
- Sugar, or Salt, 2 tablespoons = 1 ounce